November 8, 2013


STMS (SAP Transport management System) :-

1) SAP normally follows 3 system landscape with 3 tier architecture. i.e. DEV, QAS, PRD.
2) One of the systems has to be configured as transport domain controller. This configuration is done as a   part of implementation i.e. immediately after executing SICK transaction.
3) The transaction to configure transport management. STMS
4) RFC’s are generated when the Transport Management System when continued R/3 system to communicate with all R/3 systems in a domain.

Q) What is a transport group?
A) SAP systems that share a common transport directory tree form a transport group.

Q) What is transport domain controller?
A) R/3 system with the reference configuration is called as the transaction domain controller.

Q) What is transport domain?
A) All R/3 systems that are planned to manage centrally using TMS form a transport domain.

In order to configure transaction domain controller we have to login using client 000 and user sap* or any user having similar authorization using sap*.

Configuring Transport domain controller:-
1) Login to SAP using client 000 and sap*
2) Go to STMS, it will propose the system as transport domain controller, provide the description and save.
3) Go to overview menu and select systems
4) Place the cursor on SYS ID and select SAP system display
5) Go to transport pool and check under global parameter transport directory. i.e. transport directory path (\usr\sap\trans)

Note: The above steps are performed in Dev System which we can assume as domain controller

Steps for Requesting inclusion of QAS and PRD systems into domain controller
Log on to QAS with 000 and SAP* go to STMS
Select other configuration
Provide the description and target hostname of the transport domain i.e. DEV system domain name and instance no and save
Login to Development using 000 and sap * and goto STMS
Select the QAS
Go to sap systems -> Approve
This will pop up message saying “Inclusion of system in Transport Domain” then click “Yes”

Note: Repeat the above steps for inclusion of PROD system also
In Dev distribute TMS configuration by selecting extras -> Distribute TMS configuration
It POPs us a message and then select “Yes”

Backup Domain Controller   
Backup domain controller holds the copy of reference configuration and configuration changes can be managed when transport domain controller is not available.

Steps in defining backup domain controller:
1. Log on to transport domain controller system using client 000 and SAP*. Go to STMS T-code.
2. In STMS screen go to overview -> systems -> select the R3 system to be defined as backup domain controller.
3. Go to SAP system -> Display
4. Go to communication tab -> Select change under backup, you have to mention “QAS” and save then it will give a pop-up windows requesting you to configure the changes immediately, select YES.
5. Go to Extras from menu -> Activate backup domain controller. It will give a pop-up windows as “Activate system QAS as a domain controller” click “YES”.

Transport Routes:
Transport routes indicate the roles of each systems and flow of change request.

Steps to configure transport routes:
1. Go to STMS T-code and Extras -> Settings -> Transport Routes  -> Select the desired editor and choose continue (By default graphical editor)
2. Go to overview -> Transport routes -> Select display or change mode
3. Go to configuration -> Standard configuration -> Three system in group.
4. Select the R3 system in the pop-up according to their roles and click continue and save and specify the type of configuration and choose continue, it will ask you to distribute and activate the change then select YES.

Q) What are the two editor modes in which we can configure the transport routes?
A) 1. Graphical Editor
     2. Hierarchical Editor   

Q) What are the various configuration methods available in STMS?
A)  1. Single system configuration
      2. Development and Production systems
      3. Three systems in a group

Q)  What is a standard transport layer?
A)  This describes the transport route that the data from the development systems follows.

Q)  What is SAP transport layer?
A)  It is a predefined transport layer for DEV classes of SAP standard objects

Create Transport Layer:

1. STMS -> Overview -> Transport routes -> Select change button -> select zoon in button -> Select the particular transport route -> Go to Edit -> Transport layer -> Create.
2. Enter the transport layer name and description.

Configuring transport routes manually:

1. STMS -> Overview -> Transport routes
2. Go to Edit -> Transport route and add transport route -> Select source and target and leave it then we get pop-up window transport layer and click continue.

Note: Development system consider as consolidation system. Quality system consider as delivery system. Production system is considered as integration system.

Enabling Quality assurance approval procedure (QAS):
1. Go to STMS -> Overview -> Transport routes -> Select change mode and double click on QAS System.
2. Go to System -> System attributes -> Delivery after configuration and click on procedure button.
3. Select the check box under the column “ASTV” as required and choose save.
4. Select distribute and activate (F8) button icon.

Q) What are the three approval steps you need to follow as a part of approval procedure in QAS?
A) 1. To be approved by system administrator
     2. To be approved by department
     3. To be approved by request owner

Using TMS on day to day operations:
Go to “STMS_IMPORT” = this will take us to the screen in which all the imports are available. Select the import that is transport request and click the truck button (Half loaded truck).

1. If the import request button are not appears under STMS_IMPORTS then go to Extras -> other request and select add enter the transport request number manually which you want to manually import.
2. Move transport number xyz to client 100.

Transporting request in OS Level:

1. Log on to any SAP system go to “\usr\sap\trans\bin” execute the command “TP add to buffer <request number> <SID>client <client number>”
2. To import the command is “TP import <request number><SID>Client <ClientNo> U0

Note: U0 is a qualifier to leave the transport in the buffer.

Q)  What are the various qualifier option or what are the various import options?
A) There are six import options
  1. Leave transport request in queue for later import
  2. Import transport request again
  3. Overwrite originals
  4. Overwrite objects in unconfirmed repairs
  5. Ignore unpermitted transport type
  6. Ignore predecessor relations   

Will update soon... Check next post...


Configuring Printers in SAP Systems :-

The way in which documents are created may be completely different. But the output on paper is always performed using same mechanism in three steps
1) A spool request is created
2) The spool request contains device independent print data and includes administrative info and the actual print data.
3) Only when the spool request is to be output on a particular device, is an output request created.
• Device independent print data from the spool request is converted to the printer language that the selected output device understands. This procedure allows the user to display spool request before output.
• If the user wants to create a spool request and an output request at the same time, he has to choose “PRINT IMMEDIATELY” option.
• Actual document content of a spooled request is stored in TemSe (Temporary sequential Objects)
• We can define the storage location for TemSe objects using the profile parameter rspo/store_location
• Spool requests are stored in DB table TST03.
• We can specify the storage location for the output device using the Transaction Code SPAD.

1) SICK (SAP Initial Consistency Check). It’s the first Trans-Code used in post SAP installation.
2) SPRO (Customizing)

Installation Of languages (SMLT)
German and English are provided by default. If I want to install a new language use SMLT to configure new language setting.

Note: Default profile parameter related with languages is zcsa/installed_languages.

Local Printing:
The spool workprocess and the OS spool are running on the same host machine.

Access Methods of Local Printing:
Unix = L; Windows = C
Local Printing is the fastest and most reliable connection from SAP to OS. You can configure multiple spool work process for an SAP instance.

Remote Printing:
With remote printing, spool work process and OS system spooler are running on different hosts.

Access Methods of Remote Printing:
Unix = U and Windows = S as Well as U (Unix Berkeley Protocol)

Front End Printing:
We can connect output devices to our front-end machines. The access method for front-end printing is F.
• In Microsoft windows OS, saplpd, transfer program receives the data stream and forwards it to the default printer.
• We can specify max no of spool work process used for front end printing by the profile parameter rdisp/wp_no_fro_max (Default value is 1)

Note: Front End printing is not suitable for production or mass printing.
• Since front-end printing requires a connection to the front-end PC, we cannot use background processing.

Create an Output Device :-

Go to trans-code SPAD to create output device parameters to be given in SPAD -> Output Devices -> Devices/Servers
1) Output Device: Enter the name (Case Sensitive) of output device, max of 30 characters
2) Short Name: Can be generated automatically
3) Device Type: Printer model needs to be given. Device type “SWIN” is used for front-end printing. Location = Room + Building where printer is located.

Spool Server :-
It is a SAP Application server with Spool work process or logical server name.

Lock Printer in SAP system

Output request for printers for which this indicator is selected are created but not transferred to the printer. The user receives the message “No immediate Printing”.
• Host Printer = Name of the printer at OS level (Case Sensitive)

Note: The specification _DEFAULT is set for front-end printing.

Destination Host: This is used only for remote printing. It represents the name of the host where OS system spooler is running.

Host only for local printing and is calculated automatically from the spool server.

Device Type
• SAP uses device type to format the output device printout.
• When the spool work process generates an output request, it uses the specification of device type.
• This device type describes how print data should be formatted for a particular output device.

Page Format
• This describes the format of printable page in the SAP system. This describes how output should appear on paper.
• Format is a device specific implementation of a Format Type. Example: To perform an output on a page with letter format.
• Character Set: Contains characters that can be an output to a device.
• Print Control: This allows the control of display options of output devices, such as font-size, bold face.


Q) How to identify how many spool work process are setup in a particular application server?
A) Trans-Code SM51 and select the application server.
   Go to SM50 and count the number of work process with SPO

Q) How many spool processes are configured in out entire SAP system?
A) SM66 and check for SPO work process. In select process by choosing Type = Spool and Status = Wait

Q) Can we change number of spool work process by operation mode switching?
A) No. Only background and dialog work process can be modified.

Q) How to identify how many spool servers are available in your SAP system?
A) SM51 or SM66 and check for application server with at least one spool workprocess.

Q) How to make setting for an individual SAP user so that an output request is not created immediately for a spool request?
A) SU3 go to Default tab and ensure that output immediately option is not checked.

Q) How to find which printer is defined at OS level of your server?
A) Go to start -> Settings -> Printers (Revisit)

Steps to create a local printer

a. Goto SPAD->device/server tab
i. choose output device

b. Select the change button
i. to get into a change mode
ii. Device contribute step
iii. device type
iv. spool server

c. Accesses method-> host spool access method (c) host printer (name of the printer) the same.

Output a list:
To create the suggest list go ‘SA38’ enter the report ‘RSPFPAR’ and execute it. Enter the parameter ‘RSPO*’ and execute again.
Go to ‘SM51 and select the print option.
Creating a remote printer: Procedure is same as local printer.

Creating front end printer:

Go to SPAD, devices/server/page and choose output device

Will update soon... Check next post...


RFC (Remote Function Call) :-

It is call of a function module i.e. running in different system to the calling program.

• You can also call a function module in the same system as a RFC, however RFC are mostly used in calling different systems.
• RFC is an SAP interface protocol i.e. it is based on the common programming interface for communication (CPI-C) this means that ABAP functions can be called for external applications and tools.

RFC Destinations :-

1) R/3 connection
2) Internal Connection
3) Logical destinations
4) SNA/CPI-C connections
6) Connection using ABAP/4 drivers
• Transaction code for RFC connections SM59

Types of RFC’s :-

1) Synchronous RFC (SRFC) – This is used for communication between different systems and between SAP WAS and SAP GUI.

2) Asynchronous RFC (ARFC) – for communication between different systems and for parallel processing of selected tasks.

3) Transactional RFC (TRFC) – A special form of ARFC. TRFC ensures transaction like processing of steps that are originally defined.

4) Queued RFC (QRFC)
– QRFC is an extension of TRFC. It also ensures that individual steps are processed in sequence.

• If the SNC is configured, we get a tab in SU01 – user administration.
• KeyOn is a 3rd party tool configured for single sign-on for SAP systems.
• RFC connection should be bi-directional

Will update soon... Check next post...


Background JOB Administration :-

1. We mainly use background work process for long running task called batch work processors
2. Background processing is used not only for long running tasks but also for recurring tasks Ex: daily database backup or financial accounting status

A background jobs consist of one or more steps
a) An abap program
b) An external command
c) An external program

Note: every job is processed without interruption by one single background work process.

Background job can be scheduled with different priorities
I. Class A highest priority
II. Class B medium priority
III. Class C normal priority

Note: we must ensure that large share of all background tasks are normally scheduled as class C without target server specification (90% task)
Ex: task scheduled using transaction DB13

A step within a job can call one of the three actions

1) Every ABAP program can be scheduled as a step of a job if the abap program has one or more selection screen, you can create the input required in the form of a variant.
2) An external command is a call of a predefined script, a command or a program outside a SAP system. With external commands we can mask OS calls and stored them in SAP system under a new name.
3) The execution of external command Is protected using SAP authorization. i.e. certain external commands can only be processed by particular users in the system.
4) An external command is any OS command. SAP authorization concept only specifies whether a user can call external program or not.

Start criteria for background job:
A job can be triggered by the following options

1) By scheduling a job on a particular data at a particular time. Ex: time control scheduling
2) By the occurrence of a particular event defined in the sap system (event based scheduling)

Scheduling and monitoring: use transaction SM36 to define new jobs
• We can manually schedule the jobs as well as call the jobs wizard
• Most of the case we schedule manually

Required specifications for defining a job:
1) General specification such as job name job priority and target sever (optional)
2) Definition of one or more job steps
3) Definition of start conditions (time or event based)

Q) Why it is not preferred to use job wizard?
A) Unlike classical scheduling we cannot perform individual steps with different users.

Here we can monitor different status of background jobs

Status of Jobs :-

1) Schedule: The steps of job have already been defined however start condition must still been defined

2) Released:
I. The job has been define completely defined including the start condition
II. A job cannot be released without a start condition
III. Only a relevant authorized user can release a job

3) Ready: the start condition of a released job has been fulfilled. A job scheduler has placed job in the wait queue for a free background work process

4) Active: the job is currently being executed and cannot be released or changed

5) Finished: All steps of the jobs are successfully completed

6) Canceled: the job is terminated reasons for this are
I. An administrator deliberately terminated the job in transaction code SM37 by choosing job _ cancel active job button
II. A job step is terminated with an error.
Note: we can change a job status as long a job still has the status scheduled or released
III. We can create a new job by copying an existing job by choosing JOB-copy

Time Based Scheduling :-
There are three options to execute a job.
1. Immediately
2. Particular Date/Time
3. On a particular work day (i.e. factory calendar)

• A job scheduler in the background handles all time-based jobs.
• Profile parameters, which specifies the time period in which time dependent job scheduler is active  rdisp/bcttime.
• Execution of jobs with the start condition “Immediate” usually avoids the time-based scheduler.
• In this case the dialog work process of the user performs the job scheduling.
• The profile parameter to configure the background work process is rdisp/wp_no_btc
• The number of background work process depends on the number of tasks to be performed in the  background.
• If the transport system is used there must be at least 2-background process.
• Default time for time dependent job scheduler us set to 60 seconds (rdisp/bcttime = 60)
Note: An ABAP program, SAP_MSSY2 (An automatic abap program), that automatically runs in a dialog work process.
• For time based job scheduling we have a job-scheduling table in the DB.
• Jobs that are not assigned to any particular target server can be executed by any free background work processes. This means that workload is automatically distributed between the systems.
• If a job is scheduled on a particular target m/c it will run only based on the load of that machine. The automatic selection option is being disabled in this case.

Standard Jobs :-
Standard jobs refer to background jobs that should run regularly in a production system.
• As a part of our monitoring we need to take care.
• They mainly perform certain clean-up activity of a system such as deletion of obsolete spool requests.
• In SM36 we go to standard jobs.
• To schedule all default jobs, choose the “Default Scheduling” option.
• All standard jobs that are defined in the table REORGJOBS, are scheduled with specified variant and period.
• To schedule individual jobs choose the particular job using SM36 and set the execution period.
• To define an additional standard job that is not yet available in the table REORGJOBS choose “Predefined New Jobs”

Event Based Scheduling :-

An event is a signal to the b/g processing system, that a particular status that has been achieved in the SAP system. The b/g processing system receives events and then starts all the jobs that are linked to this event.
• An application (Central instance) Server is specified for processing of event based jobs.
• Event based jobs can be scheduled with one of the following 3 start conditions.
1. After Event
2. After Job
3. Operation mode
• Trans-Code to define a new event is SM62
• When defining an event, the administrator differentiates between system and user events.
• System events are events predefined by SAP that you can neither modify nor trigger.
•Triggering events is done in various ways
1. Manually using SM64
2. Using an ABAP program
3. Outside SAP at OS Level, using the program “sapevt” which runs at OS level.

Reservation for Class A Jobs :-

• There are very few jobs which will be reserved of type Class A. The reservation of work process for Class A jobs does not reserve any particular work process rather it ensures that a particular number of workprocess is always kept free.
• To set number of reserved background workprocess for Class A, you define an operation mode is RZ04 and maintain the workrocess allocation for this operation mode. By doing so, we have the option of reserving work process.
• SAP strongly recommends not to reserve more than one bgwp for processing Class A jobs.
• A job server group contains one or more instances with available bgwp. It is possible to select a job group for a particular job.
• TCode to setup a job group SM61
•Ttrans-Code to setup an extended job selection SM37c

Background Users :-
• With the definition of jobs in SM36, we can assign each step of the job to a user.
• This particular user shall have authorization for executing the jobs.

There are 2 options
1. By default, the job will be executed using the current user in which I have logged in.
2. Enter a different user name if your job should not be performed using your own authorizations.
• To perform this action we should have the authorization S_BTCH_NAM, to enter the names other than your names in the user field.
• Use the “System” user type when creating background users. SU01 – Tcode to create users.
• A dialog logon with this user is not possible.
• If I define a job using job wizard, by default that name of logged on user, is used for authorization check.

Will update soon... Check next post...

November 6, 2013



The list of very important transaction codes for client administration

Resource Requirements :-
• Copying clients requires large amount of system resources
• To avoid any bottlenecks we should ensure that there is enough resources available by considering the  following
1) DB Storage Space
2) Perform a test run before copying a client.

Q) Why do we need to perform a test run?
A) Test run determines which tables are to be changed.

Q) What is the amount of storage space a client will occupy?
A) A client without application data needs approximately 150-200 MB of storage space in a DB

Q) Why do we need to do client copy?
A) To create new clients.

Note: New clients are based on SAP reference client 000 when the R/3 system was first implemented. The new clients are Training, Demo, Test and Production Clients.

Note: It is strongly recommended when doing client copy to use the profile SAP_CUST.

Q) Do we need to transport clients between systems (or) what is the procedure for copying clients between systems?
A) We no longer require to transport clients instead we make a remote client copy.

When copying clients you can select the data that you want to transfer from source to target client.

Various Types of data are as follows

a) User Master Data: We select this option only if we want to copy all the users of an existing client with same authorizations into target client.

b) Client Specific Customizing: We select this option if you want to setup a new client in an existing system.

c) Client Specific Customizing and Master/Transaction data: We select this option if we want to setup a test client i.e. identical to the production client in the same system.

d) Client Specific and Cross Client Customizing: We select this option if we want to setup a quality Assurance system based in the production client of another system.

e) Client Specific and Cross Client Customizing and Master/Transaction Data: This option is selected to setup a test client based on production client of another system.

Note: When a client copy process is completed the client copy tool automatically generates all ABAP dictionary objects that we created as a result of a generation process.


Background Processing:  We can copy clients either online or in background.

Q) SAP recommends scheduling client copies as background jobs. Why?
• During client copy we must ensure that no users logs on to system (Source Client)
• Users already working in target client cannot be locked automatically before the client copy starts and we must ensure that they leave the system.
• In source client we can lock the users.

Note: In normal situations for some technical reasons we should not lock users in source client. Eg: Production client.
• If the source client is production client, this may lead to inconsistency if users are not logged off. To avoid inconsistencies, the related tables are copied together with other tables.
• During client copy large volumes of data is transferred and hence it may take several hours for which we need dialog processes.

Note: Client copy tool generally uses minimum of 2-dialog work process even if you start in background.
• Before performing a client copy set the profile parameter MAX_WPRUN_TIME and it is recommended to set for 30 minutes.

Q) Why should we not transport the client data?
A) this is explained with the help of a scenario. In target system, we have set up clients whose data must not be affected. The cross client data must not be imported into the system from outside, since the cross client data overwrites existing data so that customizing data of other clients in the target system no longer effects.
• For client transports RFC connection should be established between the systems.

Copy Profiles
For copying clients R/3 offers a set of profiles

To be able to copy and transport clients we need appropriate authorizations
• There are two Types of authorizations
1) General Authorizations for client copy
2) Special Authorizations

Note: This authorization is related with client transports. This authorization object should have the values TYPE=CLCP and ACTVT=01

Q) what default user has all the authorizations?
A) SAP*. This is the reason for locking this user in different environments.

Steps for Client Creation

1) Goto SCC4
2) Select [Change] button
3) Select [New Entry] 
Fill the following entries
1) Client No and Description
2) Select the client Role

Protection Level
• 1 is for copying data
• Aim of protection level attribute to present the client from being overwritten intentionally or unintentionally by copying additional client dependent data from another client.
• In DEV protection level is always no restriction
• In PROD No overwriting but external availability is there.

• CATT Stands for Computer Aided Test Tool
• They generate test data that may be helpful for demonstration purpose.
• A client with protection level 1 and 2 cannot function as target client.
• CATT scripts are only used in test systems as well as QAS systems.
• This option provides access for testing of data using various testing tools.

Locked due to a client copy: This option is used while performing client copy, i.e. locking the entire client.

Data in R/3 is of 2 types :-

Client Dependent data:
Example: Customizing, Application and User data

Client Independent data:
Example: ABAP Program, R/3 Repository Objects and Enterprise img
• In table related with client information T000, “mandt” is a field in the table T000 that stores name/number of the client.
• Client present in non-IDES: 000, 001 and 066
• Client present in IDES: 000, 001, 066 and 800 (Totally customized Client)

Note:  Option – “No Transport Allowed” deactivates CTS (Change Transport System) in client.

Local Client Copy :-
Copying clients within the same system
1) Execute the transaction Code SCCL at the SAP command line
2) Select a copy profile that matches your requirement. Click on [Choose] button
3) Save the profile value by choosing the button [Save Profile Value]. We use this option if we want to use the selected profile as default settings.
4) Enter the source client
5) Start the copy process. Starting of copy process can be done in 2 ways. Either schedule it as a background job or start immediately. Note: In a live environment we schedule it as a background job only.
• If you the expected output of the copy process is to copy only user data and profiles then we can run it online i.e. [Start Immediately]
• In order to perform a client copy the most critical step in logging into target client and perform the above process.

Copying Clients between Systems
When a Client is copied from one system to another, then data is transferred directly via RFC Interface.
1) Login to target client and go to SCC9
2) Select the copy profile
3) Enter the RFC destination
4) Start the copy process

Note: Transaction Code to create RFC destination is SM59

Transporting Clients between systems
Note: You no longer required transporting clients before you can copy clients between systems. Instead you can make a remote copy. Never the less SAP continues to provide support for transport function.
• During client transport all languages of source system are transported.
• They overwrite the text in the target system. Therefore all text are lost in the target system, whose language exists only in target system but not in source system

1) Log onto source system SCC8
2) Select a copy profile
3) Select a target system client.

Note: Logon to source system in the source client with a user that has transport authorization.
• Data export is performed automatically asynchronously.
• Output of export includes the names of transport requests that are to be imported as
  <SID>KO<no> Cross client Data
  <SID>KT<no> Client specific Data
  <SID>KK<no> Texts and Forms
• Once we are done with export, go to SE01 or SC09 and check for transport request crated.
• Client import post processing is always necessary and must be performed in the target client after import of transport request.
• Goto SCC7 to check the import Queue and verify the request number and export system and click on background job tab or start immediately. Thus the client transport is done.

Note: Client Transport = Client Export + Client import

Log onto target client go to SCC1, give the source client and transport request number and schedule it in the background. This is how local client transport is done.

Post processing activities after client import

Use the following menu for post processing activities.
Tools -> Administration -> Client Admin -> Client Transport -> Post Processing Import

Note: We can use this option to transport customizing changes to the target client, that have been made in the source client after the client copy.

Displaying Client Logs
• Goto SCC3 to check for the logs
• To display the detail log for a run, position your cursor on appropriate run and then select the [Choose] button.
• The system displays the list with the info Copy Type, Profile, Status, User, Tables, where copy problems occurred and statistical info.
• To view further details choose [Details] button.

Restarting Client Copy
• If the process terminates for some technical reasons like database shutdown, you can always restart the process from the point of termination.
• If you start a client copy or a client transport, and the previous process terminated prematurely, the system automatically proposes restart mode with the same parameter settings used for the copy that caused the termination.
• If the restarted process fails, the log displays a special note indicating possible reasons for the error.

Error Handling
Client copies usually involve large volumes of data which places strain on CPU and storage resources of a machine. Depending on data involved and system configuration the most likely errors are given below with corrections.

Client deletion:-

• Deletion of client using an R/3 script in not advised by SAP
  Client deletion pre-work:
1) Ensure that there is no backup currently running for the system.
a) Log on to the system at OS level
b) Go to cd /oracle/sid/sapbackup type tail back*, this will display the last l lines of backup log, the last line will display the latest backup. If the written code listed is the backup is still running and you will need to wait till it ends.

2) Ensure that any scheduled backup for the target system is held while archiving is turned off. By default archiving should be on.

3)Turning archive off:
a) First if there are any used currently logged on to the system. AL08, issue a system message that the system will be used in a few moments
I. Go to SM02
II. Select the create option and enter the message into dialog box displayed
III. Set the expiration date and select save button
b) To turnoff archiving first shutdown SAP
I. Sesu- <SID>adm (Status of the system)
II. Type stopsap R3
III.When you receive a message instance stopped, check the system is down or not by typing
 ps –ef |grep dw. There should be no entries visible for SID you have just stopped.
IV. Exit from SID adm
V. Type sesu_oracle<SID>
VII. Choose option f- archive mode
VIII. Select option A (toggle database log mode)
IX. Type y to the message instance will be bounced and shutdown immediately”
X. After a few movements reply or type y once again to startup the instance
XI. The archive mode menu should now show that database log mode is off
XIII. Exit from ora<SID> in order to restart SAP ensure that you are in SID adm mode.
XIV. Enter start SAP R#, when message instance started is received check the instance is running or not by typing ps –ef | grep dw and looking for SID that we have just restarted
c) Remove the system message if it is still valid

4) This step will be followed only UNIX OS only. A consequence of shutting down SAP is interrupting of SMTP mail process within UNIX you must manually restart the process
I. In unix type the command sesu_<SID>adm
II. Go to cd /sapmnt/<SID>/exe,
III. Check if the process are still running by issuing a command          ps –ef |grep ml, mail server, if there are any process running that particular process ID needs to be stopped
IV. Enter ‘kill <PID> -9

5) Since client-deleting process involves five processes, and important step before starting any process is to check that these are enough batch process available in order to carry out my work.
a) Enter SM50 and check these are at least 5 batch process available                                           (Note: see that equal no of dialog process are also available)
b) If they are not enough batch process available the operation modes will need to be switched.
c) Enter Trans-Code RZ04, double click on current operation mode and increases the batch processor assigned to that operation mode
d) Manually switch the operation modes using RZ03
e) To check if the operation mode successfully changed go to SM50 and count no of batch work process

6) This step is to prepare the user for the deletion process    
a) First login to target client for the deletion process
b) Go to SCC5
c) Specify whether you want to delete the client and also select T000 and execute the process at background

selecting option T000 will not only delete the client locally but also remove the entire physically from T000 table

Will update soon... Check next post...

November 5, 2013


Operation Modes :-
There are two types of operation mode 
1) Day Mode
2) Night Mode

• In real time scenario during day mode, we have maximum number of users logging into SAP system hence, we need maximum number of dialog work process to be set.
• During night mode, maximum number of background work processes is scheduled. Hence we need maximum number of background work processes in the night.
• In order to make these changes we need to setup operation mode

Note: During switching operation modes, neither the instance nor the effected work processes need to be restarted.

Setting up of operation Mode :-
• In the command prompt of SAP execute the Transaction code RZ04
• Create operation mode Day, Night
• Call all active instances of the system
• Select work processes that are needed based on the operation mode and assign to it as default.
• Switching up of operation modes should be set in SM63 (Time Table maintenance)
• Click Save
• Work process allocation is made primarily between dialog and background.
• Work process type = Dialog, Background, Class A, Update, V2 Update, Enque and Spool.
• Class A work process are allocated primarily for background jobs of priority high.

Maintain Operation mode and Instances :-
1) Select [Instance/Operation Modes]
2) Select [create new instance]
3) Enter Hostname, select start profile, and instance profile.
4) Click on [save] button
5) Work process distribution window pop’s up
6) Select type of operation mode and tune the number of work processes and click on [save].
Note: In live environment we will not be required to perform this step regularly, and instead we choose Instance -> Maintain Instance -> Work Process Distribution.
7) Click on [consistency check] Button. Note: Always use consistency check button because operation mode switch will not work if there is any inconsistency.
8) Goto SM63 (Timetable maintenance) and select [Change] button.
9) Choose the following menu Edit  Time Period  15 Minutes. Why only 15 minutes?
10) Select start time and end time and select assign and select operation mode.
11) Repeat these steps for Night mode.
      Go to RZ03 to display server status and Alerts.
Note: This step is selected for manual switch of the operation mode.

Select Server name and Choose Operation mode
    Select the mode and click on Choose
    Go to Control  -> Switch operation Mode  -> All Servers -> Selected Servers -> Simulation

Configuring Online Documentation :-

Online help in SAP is termed as online documentation. This has to be installed and configured in DEV only.
* Transaction code to configure help is SR13

Supported help types in SAP :-
• HTML-Help File
These files are available using a file server and are displayed with the html help weaver. This is a compressed format of help supported by Microsoft. These files have extension of .chm (Compiled HTML format).

• Plain HTML HTTP 
Documents are stored in standard html format. Documents are available using a web server and are displayed with standard web browser.

• Plain HTML File
It is the simplest type of help stored in standard html format. Documents are available using a file server and displayed with standard web browser.

• Dynamic Help
This help is used on all front-end platforms. It uses standard html format, documents are displayed in standard web browser. The files are available using knowledge warehouse server.

Note: The OS file related with help is SAPDOCCD.ini. It is located in the following directories
a) Windows directory
b) Local (or) Central GUI
c) Program Files/sap/front end/SAPgui

SAP Help Portal provides Internet based access to online documentation.

Steps to configure a Help function :-
• At the command field type the Transaction Code SR13
• Click on the Edit Icon
• Choose the [New Entry] option. On click of that enter the following details
Variance {Help Description}
Platform {Operating system. Microsoft/Unix}
Area (Auto Populated field)
Path (Should be the path of help file installation)
Language (should be English)
Default check box.
If the default check box is selected i.e. it is set as default, it is considered as the only help available whenever you login.

Will update soon... Check next post...


Starting and Stopping of SAP

When we start SAP the following sequence is executed
    Central instance
    Dialog Instance or any other Instance <Optional>

The starting and stopping from windows can be done using SAP Microsoft Management Console. In MMC right click on <SID> will give the following options
View Start Profile
View Instance Profile

The color-coding for the status of the sap server

 These colours are Vise-versa  in Start & Stop

Three types of profiles

Start/Stop of SAP systems at the background is controlled by set of profiles which are located at
 \USR\SAP\DEV\SYS\Profile where DEV is the SYSID

1) Default Profile
2) Start Profile            START_DEVBGMS01_<HOSTNAME>
                                    Where 01 is the instance number
3) Instance Profile      <SYSID>_DEVBGMS01_<HOSTNAME>
                                    Where 01 is the instance number

-> Never edit the startup profile because this profile is related with starting/stopping of SAP system.
-> First profile which is read while staring SAP system is start profile and is followed by instance profile.
-> All work processes are configured in instance profile. This profile is specific to the instance in which the
     SAP is installed. Any changes made to the startup profile will affect only that particular instance.
-> All changes made to default profile will affect the entire instances, which are configured.

Contents of Startup Profile:

     Startdbs.cmd  -> DB
     Msg_server.exe  ->  Central Instance
     Disp+work.exe  ->  Dispatcher
     Igswd.exe  ->  Java

Start/Stop in Unix:

Commands used to start and stop at OS level in Unix environment.
StopSAP    <DB>

Directory Structure:The directory structure for SAP installed files will be

What are the steps involved in stopping SAP system?
Before stopping SAP system we need to check the status of the following
•  Check if there are any logged on users. Use Transaction Code – SM04
•  Check if there are any Background process is to define – SM36
•  Check if there are any Background processing is going on. Use TC – SM37
•  Check if there is any Batch input session. Use TC – SM35
•  Check if there are any update processes running. Use TC – SM13

1)  After verifying the above status we need to send a message to all the users stating the shutdown time         using Transaction Code SM02.
2)  All transaction codes that we monitor are executed in the central Instance only.
3)  To view the users who are logged into all the instances we can use Transaction code AL08 (Global
     User Overview)
4)  Transaction code to view profile parameters RZ11.
5)  Trans Code to edit or change the profile parameters is RZ10.
6)  Report “RSPFPAR” is used to provide the same functionality as RZ11.

 Sap system profiles :-

There are two types of of profile parameters
1)    Static Parameters
2)    Dynamic Switchable

For dynamically switchable parameters, we need not restart the SAP system after making the changes. For static parameters, we need to restart the SAP system to make the changes effective.
In the table “TPFYPROPTY”, the dynamic indicator (X) identifies all dynamic switchable profile parameters.

• Use Transaction code SE16 to view the contents of a table.
• To display profile parameters from OS level we need to use the following
  Sappfpar <Parameter Name>
Eg: sappfpar ALL will return the list of all parameters.

Modes of Editing Profile :-
       There are 3 types of edit profiles
1) Administration of Data
2) Basic Maintenance
3) Extended Maintenance

1) Administration of Data: contains type of profile, short description, path of profile, Name of instance and the time of last activation. This profile mode is used only to display the profile parameters.
• You can perform the maintenance of parameters using either basic maintenance or extended.

2) Basic Maintenance:
allows adjusting most important parameters and provides logical description.

3) Extended maintenance: display the unformatted content of the profile i.e. technical names of the profile.
• In extended maintenance we can change the values, add values as well as delete.
• Changes are done in 2 steps.
    Copy == Changes are temporarily copied
    Save == Changes are permanent saved to database
• Changes to instance specific profiles takes effect only after a restart of the corresponding instance.
• Profile parameter related to security administration starts with auth* in RZ10
• Profile parameter related to work processes starts with rdisp* in RZ10

Steps for tuning Work Processes
• In the command prompt of SAP Execute RZ10.
• In the new screen opened to edit the profile parameters, choose Utilities option from the Menu
1) Inside Utilities choose the option Import Profile of Active Servers. This step is used to read 3 profile parameters from OS level to SAP level. Output of these steps is that it displays profile check log. In which it will show status of the three profiles i.e. any errors in reading the profiles.
2) Press back button
3) Select profile tab and select instance profile.
4) Goto extended maintenance and select [Change] button

Note: To create a new parameter select [Create Parameter] button.
To change the value of the existing parameter, select the parameter under the parameter name column and click on change button.
• Change the value and select [Copy] button
• Select [Back] and again click on [Copy] button
• Click on [Back] and click on [save] button.

 Will update soon... Check next post...



Types of key available in SAP service market place :
1) Developer key
2) License key
3) SSCR key
4) Migration key

1) Developer key:  is required for a developer to develop or modify objects in the customer name space. (Y or Z)                 
Note: this key stored in table “Dev Access”.

2) License key :  this key used to get the license for sap systems
• In order to authenticate our production sytem we need to apply the license key
• After installation the license key will be valid for 14 days and again we need to apply for permanent  key till 31/12/9999
• Even those  license is expired the developer not lose any Data
• In order to apply original license we need to register our system or server in market place           ( and generate the key by providing the system number.

The command for SAP license key:
   Saplicense – get = hardware key
   Transaction to check license = S license

Steps to install license key using S license :
1) log into sap and goto S license
2) get the hardware key using the command saplicense-get.
3) Go to market place and get registered and get permanent license key
4) Get the installation number
5) Click on key icon to install license

3) SSCR key:  (SAP software change registration key) :- in order to modify the objects in SAP main space we need to obtain SSCR key.
Note: in order to obtain SSCR key we need to follow certain steps
1) login to SAP market place with  s user ID
2) select the system for which SSCR key needs to be generated
3) specife the  program ID,object type  and object name along with your SAP R/3 version

4) Migration key:  in order to migrate one OS to another OS or from one DB to another DB we required a migration key.
Note: we need to enter the target system OS and DB to generate this key

SAP Data is segregated into three layers
1) SAP standard objects
2) Cross client objects
3) Client specific objects or Data

1) SAP standard objects: These are nothing but repository objects which includes functions, transaction, programs, screens etc………..
• All these are in the name space of A to X
Note: never try to change the repository objects unless and until it is required

2) Cross client objects : These are cross client tables which can be modified            
Ex: currency table, measurement table, client administration table etc…...
• what ever changes we make of type cross client will effect all the users present under that clients

3) Client specific objects (or) Data:  a change which are specific to a particular client is called client specific Data..
Ex: user master Data, application Data, customized Data

 Will update soon... Check next post...


Application Server:

Instance:  Instance is an application server which provides various services

We have 2 types of instance:
1)    Central instance
2)    Application instance

Instance is defined by set of services ie D,E,V,B,G,M,S

Central instance:
1)    This is an instance where all the services are configured  ( ie D,E,V,B,G,M,S)
2)    This is identified by message work process
3)    Generally message and enque will be hosted on same instance

Application Instance:

1)    AI is an additional layer of R/3 architecture i.e., user for reducing the load from directly falling on central instance.
2)    There in no DB in an application instance.

NOTE: the server in which DB is present is referred as DB server or central instance.  We can divide Application Server into two parts

For set of software components to work together we need a set of work process

Presentation Layer                           Application Layer                  Database Layer
Gui web browser                                 D, E, V, B, G, M, S                       DB 
gui for win html

•    We have seven types of work process in application layer
•    Each work process can be configured in a particular instance or server
•    The  no of work process which can be configured in instance is 0-99
•    If we need to configured more then 100 process (i.e 101) we need a new instance   
•    Each work process will have one dispatcher
•    Dispatcher is called  as waiting queue

Dispatcher:  There will be one dispatcher for an instance
•    Dispatcher is user to handle a request
•    Dispatcher receives a request and kept them in queue till that particular work process is free
•    Dispatcher follows FIFO  method
•    Dispatcher can be monitored from OS level by command DPMON
•    Dispatcher runs by an executable file Disp+Work.exe  located in run directory
•    The profile parameter to display the no of work process is  rdisp/wp_no_<type of wp>
Ex;-     Dialog = rdisp/wp_no_<dia> = 0-99
Background= rdisp/wp_no_<B+C> = 0-99
Spool = rdisp/wp_no_<spool> = 0-99

Work process:-

1) Dialog : the instance in which they are Max no of dialog work process is called as dialog instance
Note: For an instance to work we need a minimum of two dialog work process

2) Enque: The instance in which they are Max no of Enquee work process is called as Enquee instance
 Note:  Enquee work process are used for locking and unlock of sap objects in a table
             We should have minimum of one enquee work process in an instance
             (By default we have one work process)

3) Background: The instance in which they are Max no of back ground work process is called as background instance
Note: This work process is user for handling the jobs which are scheduled in the background
Ex: - Jobs like list of financial accounting Data, profit and loss sheet, Production related info etc……
Note: Jobs are of three types
1)    Medium :
2)    High
3)    Low:
These are represent by different colors as well as monitored and administrated by using third party tools

4) Update work process:
this is of two types
1)    Primary update (v) : task critical activities  are primary update
2)    Secondary update (v1) : non critical activities are secondary update
Note: Max no of job are of secondary update type

5) Gateway:  gateway is used for communication between 2 SAP R/3 system
Note: Between SAP R/3 system and non SAP and between R/3 to R/2
          Gateway work process is used  for external communications
          Minimum of one work process is needed

6) Spool: is used for handling request to external devices like printers and fax machines
Note: A minimum one spool work process is required

7)Message: They are three functions of message work process
   •  Handling the input request from the presentation layer
   •  Communication with dispatcher and the work process
   •  Logon load balancing

  We will always have only one message work process in any R/3 installation.
•  The server in which M + enquee work process available that server is called central instance or central server.
•   The servers in which other type of work process available except message(ie D,E,V,B,G,S) such server is called as application server or application instance
•  The transaction code to monitor the type of  servers or  instance is SM51
•  In SM51 we can see only active servers or instances
•  The transaction code to monitor both active and inactive instance is SM66
•  SM66 is also called as global process overview
•  Transaction code to monitor the list of work process present  in particular SM50
•  Each work process required around 75 to 115 MB of memory to be configured
•  We can set the execution time for each and every work process by using profile parameters
•  Default execution time for a work process is 60 sec

 Will update soon... Check next post...